For decades Afghanistan has been a battlefield of national and international forces. Continuous conflicts have taken their toll on society and reconstruction of the country is largely in the hands of national and international organizations. Living conditions are particularly challenging in the rural areas, with farmers and women being the most vulnerable groups. The rural population depends on agriculture and livestock for their livelihood, but farmers are unable to produce sufficient food due to limited access to land and water, inefficient cultural practices and repeated cycles of drought and flooding. There are limited value chain, cold stores, transportation and marketing facilities and small farmers don’t earn much. There is a shortage of medical personnel in Afghanistan, in particular of female health workers. In rural areas medical facilities are practically non-existent. Limited access to basic health care is leading to high mortality rates, specifically among mothers and children under 5.
Women and girls face gender-based violence and discrimination at family, community and society level. Their access to health care, education, security & justice and politics is constrained by social, traditional, cultural and other barriers. Furthermore, insecurity, political instability, unemployment and bleak economic opportunities led to significant internal and external migration causing serious humanitarian crises, as well as a significant brain drain.