Afghanistan has suffered decades of war and conflict that have killed, displaced, and disrupted millions of lives. At the same time, the country is prone to natural hazards including droughts, floods, earthquakes, and harsh winters in its mountainous areas. Nevertheless, increased war fatigue has shifted Afghan and international attention toward a possible political settlement in 2020. Despite some promising developments, many issues lie ahead that must be resolved before a sustainable peace process can be realised and numerous issues could potentially derail this process. Meanwhile, living conditions are particularly challenging in rural areas, with women and children being the most vulnerable groups.