In Kenya droughts, conflicts (resource-based, political and terrorism), disease epidemics (human and livestock) and flooding are the major cause of deaths, destruction of property and displacements. The most affected areas are the Northern and Eastern regions of the country. Pastoralists and farmers are highly vulnerable to prolonged droughts and rain-induced floods. During droughts, pastoralists are often forced to migrate to grazing grounds further away from their homelands.
Blocking of pastoralist migration routes greatly reduces mobility and makes pastoralists even more vulnerable. Cattle raids and conflicts over resources tend to be most severe during times of drought. The raiding of livestock, however, seems to be more violent and frequent during and at the beginning of wet seasons. Coastal areas, Kisumu area and part of the arid and semi-arid lands are especially prone to seasonal flooding. Severe rains and floods also increase the risk of epidemics such as diarrhea and cholera.
Conflicts in Kenya are ethnically oriented and more pronounced during the elections and drought episodes. Elections and political tensions/exclusions are major triggers of violent incidents and armed conflicts. General elections and an accompanying tense political situation in 2017 brought new challenges and opportunities. Kenyan civil society space is shrinking at the county level. Local civil society organizations are faced with stiff competition for financial resources as most donors prefer to work directly with the county government.